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Mykola Zharkikh (Kyiv)

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1 half of the 17th century

Nicholas Zharkikh

Taken from the Cossacks Terekhtemyriv immediately (perhaps in the same Diet 1596) was provided for Volyn noble Gregory Gulyanitsky. But the Cossacks did not consider the fight for Terekhtemyriv lost and in the next 110 years – until 1710 – at every opportunity required the government to return Terekhtemyriv from another invader or confirmation of ownership rights to it.

At that time (1613) Terekhtemyriv first appears on a map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania T. Makowski – N. Radziwill.

In the act of Zhytomyr Commission in 1614 recorded that Terekhtemyriv monastery should be handed Cossack army. When Cossacks resumed their possession Terekhtemyriv? In my opinion, this was done during the fall of 1614 – beginning of 1615.

New owners of Terekhtemyriv easily achieved immediately felt its neighbors. Complaints included the Cossacks in 1616, 1618, 1622, 1624 's, we learn that they joined to town and monastery villages Hryhorivka, Zherdeva, Pidsuche, Romashky, Kolesyscha, Bukryn. In fact, the entire Terekhtemyriv peninsula was possession of the Cossacks.

In early 1616, first appears in documents a particular person associated with the monastery – Archimandrite Ezekiel Kurtsevych (? – 1625? 1642?).

During the visit of Patriarch Theophanes E.Kurtsevych was ordained a Bishop Vladimir-Brest. In June 1624 against him (as Terekhtemyriv Abbot) filed another complaint by hitting a Rzhyschiv. On this basis, I conclude that Kurtsevych resided in Terekhtemyriv monastery continuously from 1615 (1614?) to 1624. Later E. Kurtsevych emigrated to Moscow (probably in autumn 1625).

During the long stay of Jerusalem Patriarch Theophanes in Ukraine (1620 – 1621 years), he twice visited Terekhtemyriv monastery – in May 1620 and in January 1621.

About the second visit we learn from a letter Theophanes written 7 (17) January 1621 in Terekhtemyriv monasteries. The letter was addressed to the Cossacks and urged them to come up to fight against the Turkish invasion.

So in this episode Terekhtemyriv played a political role, in addition, not every Ukrainian monastery may boasts a two-time visit to the patriarch.

The next two episodes from the history of Terekhtemyriv also some (albeit small) political significance. In autumn 1622 the Cossacks seized in Kiev four Uniate clerics and kept them in detention in Terekhtemyriv. The next episode is associated with staying in Ukraine pretender to the Turkish throne Jakhia (Alexander). Jan. 24 (Feb. 3) 1625 he met in Terekhtemyriv with metropolitan Boretsky. Boretsky wrote a letter of recommendation for Jakhia's messengers, and they just departed from Terekhtemyriv to Moscow, joining the road to Zaporizhia embassy. Further development of this story not related with Terekhtemyriv.

In the history of the Cossack uprising 1637 – 1638 years, unlike earlier and later revolts Terekhtemyriv played a role. It boils down to these three episodes.

1, the head of the rebellion in 1637 P. Pawluk sometime in August – September 1637 sent the Crown Hetman S. Koniecpolski complaint, in which he mentioned the valuables which his predecessors (Cossack leaders) filed a Terekhtemyriv for praise of God – now they have been taken.

2, the oath of registered Cossacks in Terekhtemyriv. It was carried out after the defeat of the Registered Cossacks in Kumejki and Borovitsa by the Polish commissioners – Stanislaw Potocki and Adam Kisel – who had to re-register Cossacks and bring them to swear allegiance to the Commonwealth. This event was held in Terekhtemyriv from 5 (15) to 11 (21) February 1638.

3, Warsaw Sejm held in March – April 1638, adopted a new ordination Cossack troops. The project was prepared by Stanislaw Koniecpolski. It formed the basis of Sejm constitution.

When doing this ordination in December 1638 found that Terekhtemyriv destroyed, and the Polish Commissioner of the Cossacks could not fit there.

When and who destroyed Terekhtemyriv? In M. Potocki's relation of December 1638 it was written that town devastated by fire because there was a major stronghold of the rebels and where they do the most stubborn resistance.

This is – obvious lie! The main fighting during the uprising in 1638 there were further south. The main resistance they did in the camp Starets at the mouth of Sula. Neither eyewitness S. Okolski who carefully recorded all combat fight nor modern scholar A. Borowiak that used recently introduced into scientific circulation new documents about this uprising did not mention the fights in Terekhtemyriv, its defense or acquisition.

The result of ordination 1638 was total destruction of Cossacks possession in Terekhtemyriv. Villages around Terekhtemyriv were added to Kaniv starostvo, and the Terekhtemyriv became the seat of the Polish Commissioner with a numerous guardia. Cossacks remained perhaps one monastery.

By this time (1645) was published chronicle by Paul Piasecki detailing the Báthory legend. As part of this legend was fantastic image of Terekhtemyriv. Thereafter, the legend has healed independent life. This tells more in section "Legends".

It is an abstract of the chapter. For the full text see please ukrainian version.