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Mykola Zharkikh (Kyiv)

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2nd half of 17th century

Nicholas Zharkikh

Since the beginning of the liberation war of Bogdan Khmelnytsky (1648) Terekhtemyriv often mentioned in various military communiques as a ferry across the Dnieper, which was of some importance to maneuver troops (in line with passages in Kaniv and Rzhyschiv).

16 (26) February 1649 Secretary of the Polish Embassy Wojciech Miaskowski, departing from Pereyaslav, recorded that same day Khmelnytsky went to Terekhtemyriv. This – the only record about a possible visit B.Khmelnytsky to Terekhtemyriv, and about the other hetmans we do not have such records.

There were no mention on Terekhtemyriv in 1649 Zborow treaty documents. But it was a requirement for a separate postulate of cossacks, and as a response to it King Jan-Casimir issued privilege for cossacks on Terekhtemyriv. Ceremony issuing privilege on Terekhtemyriv repeated at each subsequent ratification of peace with the Cossack Army – in 1652 and 1659, respectively. Follow Polish kings did not gave such privileges.

Zborow treaty brought in Ukraine another important innovation – fixing of centesimal administrative structure. In drawing up the new registry of Cossack Army in the Kaniv regiment was allocated Terekhtemyriv company, which consisted of 167 Cossacks.

Register in 1649 called the first known Terekhtemyriv Centurion – Tsepkovsky.

In 1654, during talks in Moscow between Ukrainian and Russian ambassadors and concluding March Union was raised the issue of granting the privilege to Terekhtemyriv monastery from the tsar's government. In this case monastery was called military the first time. The tsarist government was silent on this appeal and never gave such a privilege, and in 1667 renounced all right-bank Ukraine.

Complex of four petitions of Abbot Joasaph Krekhivsky 1660 is extraordinary interest as a source to the internal history of the monastery. What was hoping to get Joasaph in Moscow?

The most important item was tin (white iron) for the church roof, which leaked badly, so that water sailed to the throne and the pulpit. The monastery needed paints for icons. In an indirect way, we learn that there was a painter. Next monastery needed prayer books. Specifically, were called "Statutes" and "Ladder". Then it needed a church clothes – robe and surplice for the deacon. It was also requested monetary salary.

Pleas can explain something name "military", attached to the monastery. Hetman Yurii Khmelnytsky with all the Cossack Army called "supreme holy place ktytor of Military Monastery Terekhtemyriv." It is important to mention that the hospital belonged to the monastery. Great value for the monastery was privilegy to fish in the river Samara and its tributaries.

At the end of September (julian style) 1659 at Rosava river held Cossack Council, which Vyhovsky been overtrowed and Yuri Khmelnytsky proclaimed hetman.

Before the new hetman was a question of normalization of relations with Russia (in the form of oath to Moscow Tsar). Khmelnytsky sent Trubetskoy (which resided in Pereyaslav) proposal to carry out the negotiations and oath in Terekhtemyriv monastery.

Russian representatives had rejected this offer and forced Khmelnytsky come to Pereyaslav (9 (19) October 1659). Terekhtemyriv monastery was very close to play a political role, but circumstances have returned anyway, and the fate of the monastery fell only give stationary for Ukrainian and Russian troops moved in spite of it.

Soon after, in 1661, the Dnieper was the front line between the left-bank and right-bank hetmans and remained so until 1686, when its "front-line" status moved to the status of the border between Russia and the Commonwealth.

Terekhtemyriv monastery was so devastated that the monks were forced to temporarily relocate to Kaniv monastery, as recorded in the Universal of Hetman I. Brjukhovetsky of 8 (18) May 1665. In the Universal of P. Doroshenko for Kaniv monastery of 2 (12) February 1670 there was no more mention of Terekhtemyriv monks, from which we can conclude that they have turned to Terekhtemyriv.

Despite these adventures, right-bank Cossacks continued to solicit cases Terekhtemyriv monastery. Requirements for Sejm guarantees for it contained the instructions for Cossack envoys to the Sejm, written in 1664 (by Hetman P. Teterya), 1666 and 1670 (by Hetman P. Doroshenko).

Except petitions to the Diet, the hetman P. Doroshenko published in 1673 universal in favor Terekhtemyriv monastery. Document issued for Abbot Artem Sylnytsky, so there is no doubt about the operation of the monastery at that time. The only specific property of the monastery at that time was passage on the Dnieper.

By this time, up to 1672, was the first mention of local homecraft – production of millstones. This year the merchants of Shishaki went to Terekhtemyriv (which is 200 km) for millstones, and failed to cross the Dnieper through military action. This homecraft operated in 18 – 19 cent., but its volume was small, and it was not seen as a source of income.

The most serious accident befell Terekhtemyriv in 1678, after the Turkish army won Chygyryn. The only source on the fate Terekhtemyriv at this time is later mention in the Universal of I. Mazepa from December 10, 1701, which he gave Pereyaslavl Bishop estates "Orthodox monastery from busurman invasion destroyed – Terekhtemyriv Monastery and Kaniv Monastery". The only significant case busurman attack on Kaniv region was a march of Turkish and Tatar troops to Kaniv in September 1678.

The only fragment of Kaniv regiment that survived after the evacuation of the left bank of the Dnieper, was Terekhtemyriv company. For it had given seven villages on the left bank opposite Terekhtemyriv (lists known from documents in 1730 and 1781), and it was incorporated into the Pereyaslav regiment.

The decisive blow struck Terekhtemyriv by Perpetual Peace concluded between Russia and the Commonwealth in 1686. Seventh article of treaty specifically concerned the status of the settlements on the right bank of the Dnieper. Article worked out very difficult and almost became an obstacle at the conclusion of peace. The parties agreed that the settlements (among which is clearly mentioned Terekhtemyriv) temporarily had to remain unoccupied.

Engraving «Terekhtemyriv» 1687

Engraving "Terekhtemyriv" 1687

At this time (1687) in the German city Augsburg was published the book «Cyaneae» with mentions on Terekhtemyriv and engraving. This engraving is often reprint, but never indicate that it is – fantasy of German engraver, it has no relation to the real Terekhtemyriv.

It is an abstract of the chapter. For the full text see please ukrainian version.